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英语学习园地(一)The most common complication of insulin treatment

                                                                                                                                       加入时间 2015-12-22

Hypoglycemia is the most common complication of insulin treatment, occurring more often as patients try to achieve strict glucose control and approach near-normoglycemia. Symptoms of mild or moderate hypoglycemia include headache, diaphoresis, light-headedness and confusion. Symptoms of more severe hypoglycemia include seizures and loss of consciousness. In older patients, hypoglycemia may produce symptoms of aphasia or hemiparesis and is more likely to precipitate sudden death. Type 1 diabetics with long duration of disease may be unaware of hypoglycemia because they no longer experience autonomic symptoms (hypoglycemia unawareness).

Hypoglycemia [ˌhaɪpəʊglaɪ'si:mɪə]     低血糖

insulin [ˈɪnsəlɪn]                     胰岛素

diaphoresis [ˌdaɪəfə'ri:sɪs]              出汗

seizures ['si:ʒə]                       癫痫

aphasia [əˈfeɪziə]                      失语

hemiparesis [hemɪpə'ri:sɪs]              偏瘫

Diabetics[,daiə'betik]                  糖尿病患者

 

胰岛素治疗最常见的并发症是低血糖,经常发生在试图严格控制血糖和接近正常血糖的患者。轻中度的低血糖的症状包括:头痛、出汗、头晕、和意识混乱。严重低血糖症状是癫痫和意识丧失。在老年患者,低血糖可能引起失语和偏瘫的中风样症状,并且可能引起猝死。长期患有1型糖尿病的患者由于没有症状而不易发现低血糖。(无症状性低血糖)

 

Generalized allergic reaction is extremely rare with human insulins but can occur when insulin is restarted after a lapse in treatment. Symptoms develop 30 min to 2 h after injection and include urticaria, angioedema, pruritus, bronchospasm, and anaphylaxis. Treatment with antihistamines often suffices, but epinephrine and IV glucocorticoids may be needed. If insulin treatment is needed after a generalized allergic reaction, skin testing with a panel of purified insulin preparations and desensitization should be performed.

allergic  [əˈlɜ:dʒɪk]                过敏的

    urticaria  [ˌɜ:tɪˈkeəriə]           荨麻疹

angioedema [ændʒi:əʊi:'di:mə]      血管性水肿

pruritus [prʊˈraɪtəs]                瘙痒

bronchospasm ['brɒŋkəˌspæzəm]    支气管痉挛

anaphylaxis [ˌænəfəˈlæksɪs]        过敏反应

 

应用人胰岛素出现过敏反应是极罕见的,但是当胰岛素失效后再使用时可能会出现。注射30分钟到2小时后会出现症状,症状包括荨麻疹、血管性水肿、瘙痒、支气管痉挛以及过敏反应。通常应用抗组胺药就足以消除过敏反应了,但有时可能也需要肾上腺素及静脉注射糖皮质激素。如果广泛的过敏反应后还需要应用胰岛素,需要用纯胰岛素进行皮试,并进行脱敏疗法。

 

Local fat atrophy or hypertrophy at injection sites is relatively rare and is thought to result from an immune reaction to a component of the insulin preparation. Either may resolve by rotation of injection sites.

Insulin resistance occurs mostly in type 2 diabetics. The causes are usually obesity and genetic factors. It can sometimes be treated by changing insulin preparations (eg, from animal to human insulin) and by administering corticosteroids if necessary.

atrophy [ˈætrəfi]                  萎缩

hypertrophy [haɪˈpɜ:trəfi]          增生

    corticosteroids [ˌkɔ:tɪkəʊs'tɪrɔɪd]   糖皮质激素

    obesity[əʊ'bi:sətɪ]                肥胖

    genetic [dʒəˈnetɪk]               遗传

注射部位的局部脂肪萎缩或增生是相对少见的,通常认为是由于对胰岛素制剂的某种成分引起的免疫反应,可以通过轮换注射部位避免。

胰岛素抵抗主要出现在2型糖尿病的患者。通常是因为肥胖或者遗传因素引起的。有时需要更换胰岛素制剂(从动物胰岛素换为人胰岛素),或者在必要时使用糖皮质激素。

 

                                                 医疗四科隋伟玉 

(整理)

 

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